OS Install Experiences - Part 3: PC-BSD [Update]

Note: This article is part of my OS Install Experiences series.

I'll continue with the recently released operating system PC-BSD 1.1, which is based on FreeBSD 6.1.

This is actually the first time I installed a BSD-like OS, so I thought it would be a bit of a hassle. But I was surprised to find that the install was really pretty easy (which is a major goal of PC-BSD, as I understand it). I didn't even read a manual or installation instructions or anything...

Install

  1. First, I downloaded a PC-BSD 1.1 CD #1 image, burned it on a CD, and booted from that.
  2. The first installer screen is text-based (later it's graphical), and allows you to choose between a normal install ("boot FreeBSD"), install "with ACPI", "safe mode", "single user mode", and "with verbose logging". You can also "escape to loader prompt", or "reboot".
  3. While the installer runs, it merely shows a nice desktop background, pressing any key shows you the boot messages.
  4. After a while you can select a screen resolution for the graphical installer, run fdisk, escape into an "emergency shell", chroot into the root partition, or reboot. Default is to start the installation at a pre-selected screen resolution.
  5. You can choose the language and keyboard layout. Although you can click "back" to return to previous steps in the installer, you can not go back to the language/keyboard selection later!
  6. Partitioning. First, you can choose on which disk to install, then choose the partition to use. The list only shows the primary partitions and an "extended DOS" partition. Device names for disks are a bit different in BSD world. /dev/ad0 (counting starts at 0) is the first disk, /dev/ad0s1 (counting starts at 1) the first "partition" (called "slice" in BSD). It doesn't seem to be possible to install PC-BSD on an extended partition (please correct me if I'm wrong), so I installed it on /dev/hda2 (/dev/ad0s2 in BSD-speak), which is a primary partition. To make things more complex and confusing, a BSD slice can contain multiple "partitions" (not the same as Linux partitions!). I now have /dev/ad0s2a, which is the boot partition, and /dev/ad0s2b, the swap partition. Confused? Me too.
  7. Note that changes made to the partition table seem to be effective immediately, there's no way to go back without losing data! Debian's installer is better at this. The default PC-BSD file system is UFS, btw.
  8. The hardware will be automatically detected (worked quite well for me).
  9. You can now choose to either install the BSD bootloader in the MBR, or install no bootloader at all. Not sure what the best thing for me is here, but I decided to install the BSD bootloader (overwriting GRUB). I might have to re-install GRUB (and tell it about PC-BSD) if the BSD bootloader cannot boot the other (Linux) OSes.
  10. Now I must enter the root password, and I can also create another user. I noticed that passwords can only contain alpha-numeric characters (no %$§,.#+!? and so on). WTF? They can't be serious... Also, you must enter a real name for the normal user, it won't let you continue until you type something... Pretty annoying. There's a checkbox called "Auto-Login User?" which is enabled by default, but I didn't find out what exactly that does...
  11. The network is successfully auto-configured via DHCP. I was not asked for a hostname, but typed hostname after the install and I got PCBSD.localhost.
  12. Reboot. The CD is not ejected automatically, you have to remove it manually before booting up.
  13. I'm asked to insert CD 2 (language packs), which I don't have (or want), as I only burned CD 1. Clicking "abort" does the trick, and I can continue with English as the default language.
  14. Finally, I'm dropped into a KDE session, and that's it.

Security

Continue reading here...

Update 2006-06-02: Added IPv6 netstat/sockstat output.
Update 2006-06-02: Shortened the length of the article on my main webpage as well as the RSS feed. But you can always read the whole article here, of course.

  • Portscan from another box:
    PORT    STATE SERVICE
    22/tcp  open  ssh
    139/tcp open  netbios-ssn
    445/tcp open  microsoft-ds
    631/tcp open  ipp
    

    ssh is configured to not allow root logins per default.

  • netstat output:
    %sockstat -l -4 -6
    USER     COMMAND    PID   FD PROTO  LOCAL ADDRESS         FOREIGN ADDRESS
    root     smbd       771   19 tcp4   *:445                 *:*
    root     smbd       771   20 tcp4   *:139                 *:*
    root     nmbd       763   6  udp4   *:137                 *:*
    root     nmbd       763   7  udp4   *:138                 *:*
    root     nmbd       763   8  udp4   192.168.0.4:137       *:*
    root     nmbd       763   9  udp4   192.168.0.4:138       *:*
    root     cupsd      703   0  tcp4   *:631                 *:*
    root     cupsd      703   2  udp4   *:631                 *:*
    root     sendmail   658   4  tcp4   127.0.0.1:25          *:*
    root     sshd       630   3  tcp6   *:22                  *:*
    root     sshd       630   4  tcp4   *:22                  *:*
    root     syslogd    480   6  udp6   *:514                 *:*
    root     syslogd    480   7  udp4   *:514                 *:*
    

    Gah, netstat options differ quite a bit from the Linux netstat implementation. After some googling I found you can use either netstat -f inet -an, or sockstat -l -4.

  • Some permissions:
    -rw-r--r--   2 root  wheel      801 Sep 18  2005 .cshrc
    -rw-r--r--   2 root  wheel      251 Sep 18  2005 .profile
    drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel      512 Jan  9 19:28 .qt
    drwxrwxr-x   2 root  operator   512 May 31 12:56 .snap
    -r--r--r--   1 root  wheel     6188 Sep 18  2005 COPYRIGHT
    drwxr-xr-x  14 root  wheel      512 May 31 12:57 PCBSD
    drwxr-xr-x   7 root  wheel      512 Aug  2  2005 Programs
    drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel     1024 May 22 14:13 bin
    lrwxr-xr-x   1 root  wheel       10 Nov  2  2005 compat -> usr/compat
    dr-xr-xr-x   5 root  wheel      512 Dec 31  1969 dev
    -rw-------   1 root  wheel     4096 May 26 09:52 entropy
    drwxr-xr-x  18 root  wheel     2048 May 31 21:07 etc
    lrwxrwxrwx   1 root  wheel        8 Jan 10 21:48 home -> usr/home
    dr-xr-xr-x   2 root  wheel      512 Sep 18  2005 proc
    drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel     2560 May 22 14:14 rescue
    drwxr-xr-x   4 root  wheel      512 May 31 21:21 root
    lrwxr-xr-x   1 root  wheel       11 May 22 14:12 sys -> usr/src/sys
    drwxrwxrwx  10 root  wheel      512 May 31 21:07 tmp
    drwxr-xr-x   3 root  wheel      512 May 31 13:56 /usr/home
    drwxr-xr-x   7 uwe   uwe       1024 May 31 21:07 /home/uwe/
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0,  98 May 31 21:01 acd0
    crw-r--r--  1 root  wheel       0,  30 May 31 21:01 acpi
    crw-r-----  1 root  operator    0,  96 May 31 21:01 ad0*
    crw-r-----  1 root  operator    0,  97 May 31 21:01 ad1*
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  32 May 31 21:01 agpgart
    crw-rw-r--  1 root  operator    0,  31 May 31 21:01 apm
    crw-------  1 root  operator    0,  29 May 31 21:01 ata
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  64 May 31 21:01 atkbd0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0,  37 May 31 21:01 audio0.*
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0, 142 May 31 21:01 bpf0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0, 141 May 31 21:01 cd0
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  11 May 31 21:20 console
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  82 May 31 21:01 consolectl
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0,  12 May 31 21:01 ctty
    crw-rw----  1 uucp  dialer      0,  55 May 31 21:01 cuad*
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,   4 May 31 21:01 devctl
    cr--------  1 root  wheel       0,  94 May 31 21:01 devstat
    dr-xr-xr-x  2 root  wheel          512 Dec 31  1969 dri
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0,  35 May 31 22:40 dsp*
    dr-xr-xr-x  2 root  wheel          512 Dec 31  1969 fd
    crw-r-----  1 root  operator    0,  95 May 31 21:01 fd0
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  16 May 31 21:01 fido
    crw-r-----  1 root  operator    0,   5 May 31 21:01 geom.ctl
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  17 May 31 21:01 io
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  25 May 31 21:01 kbdmux0
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,   7 May 31 21:01 klog
    crw-r-----  1 root  kmem        0,  28 May 31 21:01 kmem
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  49 May 31 21:01 lpt0*
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  93 May 31 21:01 mdctl
    crw-r-----  1 root  kmem        0,  27 May 31 21:01 mem
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0,  34 May 31 21:01 mixer0
    dr-xr-xr-x  2 root  wheel          512 Dec 31  1969 net
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,   3 May 31 21:01 network
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  84 May 31 21:01 nfs4
    crw-------  1 root  kmem        0,  15 May 31 21:01 nfslock
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0,   8 May 31 22:33 null
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0, 140 May 31 21:01 pass0
    crw-r--r--  1 root  wheel       0,  10 May 31 21:01 pci
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  85 May 31 21:01 pf
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  51 May 31 21:01 ppi0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0, 146 May 31 21:01 ptyp*
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0,  13 May 31 21:01 random
    cr--r--r--  1 root  wheel       0,   6 May 31 21:01 sndstat
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  18 May 31 21:01 sysmouse
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  52 May 31 21:01 ttyd*
    crw--w----  1 uwe   tty         0, 147 May 31 21:01 ttyp0
    crw-------  1 uwe   tty         0, 149 May 31 22:40 ttyp1
    crw-------  1 root  tty         0,  66 May 31 21:07 ttyv0
    crw-------  1 root  wheel       0,  67 May 31 21:02 ttyv[1-9a-f]
    crw-r--r--  1 root  operator    0,  83 May 31 21:01 ums0
    lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel            6 Dec 31  1969 urandom -> random
    crw-rw----  1 root  operator    0,  45 May 31 21:01 usb*
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0,  92 May 31 21:01 xpt0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel       0,   9 May 31 21:01 zero
    

    At least /root and /home/* could use a chmod 700.

  • Default users and shells:
    root:*:0:0:Charlie &:/root:/bin/csh
    toor:*:0:0:Bourne-again Superuser:/root:
    daemon:*:1:1:Owner of many system processes:/root:/usr/sbin/nologin
    operator:*:2:5:System &:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
    bin:*:3:7:Binaries Commands and Source:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
    tty:*:4:65533:Tty Sandbox:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
    kmem:*:5:65533:KMem Sandbox:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
    games:*:7:13:Games pseudo-user:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
    news:*:8:8:News Subsystem:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
    man:*:9:9:Mister Man Pages:/usr/share/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
    sshd:*:22:22:Secure Shell Daemon:/var/empty:/usr/sbin/nologin
    smmsp:*:25:25:Sendmail Submission User:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/usr/sbin/nologin
    mailnull:*:26:26:Sendmail Default User:/var/spool/mqueue:/usr/sbin/nologin
    bind:*:53:53:Bind Sandbox:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
    proxy:*:62:62:Packet Filter pseudo-user:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
    _pflogd:*:64:64:pflogd privsep user:/var/empty:/usr/sbin/nologin
    _dhcp:*:65:65:dhcp programs:/var/empty:/usr/sbin/nologin
    uucp:*:66:66:UUCP pseudo-user:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/local/libexec/uucp/uucico
    pop:*:68:6:Post Office Owner:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
    www:*:80:80:World Wide Web Owner:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
    nobody:*:65534:65534:Unprivileged user:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
    cyrus:*:60:60:the cyrus mail server:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
    uwe:*:1001:1001:U:/home/uwe:/bin/csh
    

    Now, this is nice. The default shell for system users seems to be /usr/sbin/nologin. Default for normal users is /bin/csh. There's no /etc/shadow, but /etc/master.passwd seems to serve the same purpose. MD5 hashes seem to be used to store passwords (hashes begin with $1$).

  • Setuid/setgid files:
    # find / -type f \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -exec ls -ld '{}' \;
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  18332 May 22 14:13 /bin/rcp
    -rwsr-sr-t  2 root  wheel  10832 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mdmfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  2 root  wheel  10832 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_mfs
    -r-sr-x---  1 root  operator  4912 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mksnap_ffs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  14968 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  7908 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_cd9660
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  6212 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_ext2fs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  10408 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_msdosfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  16884 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_nfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  15220 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_nfs4
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  10304 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_ntfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  6152 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_nullfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  6148 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_reiserfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  5 root  wheel  6192 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_std
    -rwsr-sr-t  5 root  wheel  6192 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_devfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  5 root  wheel  6192 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_fdescfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  5 root  wheel  6192 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_linprocfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  5 root  wheel  6192 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_procfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  6868 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_udf
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  7472 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_umapfs
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  6184 May 22 14:14 /sbin/mount_unionfs
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  21792 May 22 14:14 /sbin/ping
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  28660 May 22 14:14 /sbin/ping6
    -r-sr-x---  1 root  operator  10148 May 22 14:14 /sbin/shutdown
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 root  wheel  14276 May 22 14:14 /sbin/umount
    -rwsr-sr-t  1 uwe  uwe  661 Mar 28 12:20 /sbin/mount_auto
    -r-sr-xr-x  4 root  wheel  20948 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/at
    -r-sr-xr-x  4 root  wheel  20948 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/atq
    -r-sr-xr-x  4 root  wheel  20948 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/atrm
    -r-sr-xr-x  4 root  wheel  20948 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/batch
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  kmem  8500 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/btsockstat
    -r-sr-xr-x  6 root  wheel  17532 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/chpass
    -r-sr-xr-x  6 root  wheel  17532 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/chfn
    -r-sr-xr-x  6 root  wheel  17532 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/chsh
    -r-sr-xr-x  6 root  wheel  17532 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/ypchpass
    -r-sr-xr-x  6 root  wheel  17532 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/ypchfn
    -r-sr-xr-x  6 root  wheel  17532 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/ypchsh
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  kmem  14340 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/fstat
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  7680 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/lock
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  17616 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/login
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  kmem  114864 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/netstat
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  4128 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/opieinfo
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  10572 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/opiepasswd
    -r-sr-xr-x  2 root  wheel  5828 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/passwd
    -r-sr-xr-x  2 root  wheel  5828 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/yppasswd
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  10140 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/rlogin
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  8016 May 22 14:14 /usr/bin/rsh
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  11992 May 22 14:15 /usr/bin/su
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  tty  10536 May 22 14:15 /usr/bin/wall
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  tty  8172 May 22 14:15 /usr/bin/write
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  24544 May 22 14:15 /usr/bin/crontab
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  smmsp  582752 May 22 14:15 /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  3400 May 22 14:13 /usr/libexec/pt_chown
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  4244 Mar  2 08:29 /usr/local/bin/artswrapper
    -rwsr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  11001 Oct 10  2005 /usr/local/bin/fileshareset
    -rwsr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  5936 Apr 12 12:39 /usr/local/bin/kpac_dhcp_helper
    -rwsr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  5972 Apr 12 12:14 /usr/local/bin/kgrantpty
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  kmem  39780 Apr 12 18:28 /usr/local/bin/ksysguardd
    -rwsr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  10812 Apr 12 18:06 /usr/local/bin/kcheckpass
    -rwxr-sr-x  1 root  nogroup  49324 Apr 12 18:08 /usr/local/bin/kdesud
    -rwsr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  595620 Apr 12 21:46 /usr/local/bin/kppp
    -rwsr-xr-x  1 root  daemon  8848 Mar  2 10:17 /usr/local/bin/lppasswd
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  5744 Oct 11  2005 /usr/local/sbin/eject
    -r-sr-sr-x  1 root  authpf  14724 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/authpf
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  daemon  43112 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/lpc
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  15844 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/mrinfo
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  30452 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/mtrace
    -r-sr-x---  1 root  network  324192 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/ppp
    -r-sr-x---  1 root  dialer  96760 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/pppd
    -r-sr-x---  1 root  network  11636 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/sliplogin
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  14908 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/timedc
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  19168 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/traceroute
    -r-sr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  16212 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/traceroute6
    -r-xr-sr-x  1 root  kmem  8252 May 22 14:15 /usr/sbin/trpt
    -rws--x--x  1 root  wheel  257252 Apr 12 11:03 /usr/X11R6/bin/xterm
    -rws--x--x  1 root  wheel  1677417 Apr 12 10:55 /usr/X11R6/bin/Xorg
    

    Quite a lot more than other OSes, I have the impression. They use sendmail?! Or is that a more secure replacement? Didn't check...

  • World-writable files:
    # find / -not -type l -perm -o+w -exec ls -ld '{}' \;
    drwxrwxrwx  10 root  wheel  512 May 31 21:51 /tmp
    drwxrwxrwt  2 root  wheel  512 May 31 21:07 /tmp/.X11-unix
    srwxrwxrwx  1 root  wheel  0 May 31 21:07 /tmp/.X11-unix/X0
    drwxrwxrwt  2 root  wheel  512 May 31 21:07 /tmp/.ICE-unix
    drwxrwxrwt  2 root  wheel  512 May 31 21:01 /tmp/.font-unix
    drwxrwxrwt  2 root  wheel  512 May 31 21:01 /tmp/.XIM-unix
    srw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel  0 May 31 21:01 /var/run/devd.pipe
    srw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel  0 May 31 21:01 /var/run/log
    srw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel  0 May 31 21:07 /var/run/xdmctl/dmctl/socket
    srw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel  0 May 31 21:07 /var/run/xdmctl/dmctl-:0/socket
    drwxrwxrwt  2 root  wheel  512 Apr 12 10:40 /var/spool/samba
    drwxrwxrwt  5 root  wheel  512 May 31 21:07 /var/tmp
    drwxrwxrwt  2 root  wheel  512 May 31 21:51 /var/tmp/vi.recover
    drwxrwxrwx  2 root  wheel  512 May 11  2005 /Programs/.tmp
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,   8 May 31 21:44 /dev/null
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,   9 May 31 21:01 /dev/zero
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  12 May 31 21:01 /dev/ctty
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  13 May 31 21:01 /dev/random
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  19 May 31 21:01 /dev/fd/0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  21 May 31 21:01 /dev/fd/1
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  23 May 31 21:01 /dev/fd/2
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  34 May 31 21:01 /dev/mixer0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  35 May 31 21:41 /dev/dsp0.0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  36 May 31 21:01 /dev/dspW0.0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  37 May 31 21:01 /dev/audio0.0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  38 May 31 21:01 /dev/dsp0.1
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  39 May 31 21:01 /dev/dspW0.1
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  40 May 31 21:01 /dev/audio0.1
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0,  41 May 31 21:01 /dev/dspr0.1
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0,  92 May 31 21:01 /dev/xpt0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0,  98 May 31 21:01 /dev/acd0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 128 May 31 21:01 /dev/dsp0.2
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 129 May 31 21:01 /dev/dspW0.2
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 130 May 31 21:01 /dev/audio0.2
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 131 May 31 21:01 /dev/dsp0.3
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 132 May 31 21:01 /dev/dspW0.3
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 133 May 31 21:01 /dev/audio0.3
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 134 May 31 21:01 /dev/dsp0.4
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 135 May 31 21:01 /dev/dspW0.4
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 136 May 31 21:01 /dev/audio0.4
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 137 May 31 21:01 /dev/dsp0.5
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 138 May 31 21:01 /dev/dspW0.5
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 139 May 31 21:01 /dev/audio0.5
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0, 140 May 31 21:01 /dev/pass0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  operator    0, 141 May 31 21:01 /dev/cd0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 146 May 31 21:01 /dev/ptyp0
    crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel    0, 148 May 31 21:53 /dev/ptyp1
    

That's it.

Comments, suggestions, flames?

Comments

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netstat

I think you should also check for IPv6 sockets.

sockstat -l -4 -6

Added, thanks.