I've bought a new hard drive for my laptop recently, because I finally got fed up with my constantly-full disk. Having to browse around in $HOME looking for stuff which can be safely deleted just because I want to run
fetchmail (and that would fill up my disk) just sucks. So, after getting a cheapo 160 GB 2.5" disk (the old one was 80 GB), I had to move all my data to the new disk.
As I didn't want to re-install from scratch I started with
dd'ing the whole disk over to the new one (using a live CD and an external USB hard-drive enclosure). This took pretty long, but went fine otherwise.
The new disk then contained all my partitions (hda1-hda3) and also GRUB in the MBR etc., as expected, but was still only 80 GB in size, of course. So the first step is to enlarge the hda3 partition, which is a dm-crypt volume that contains various LVM logical volumes (for /home, /usr, /var, swap, etc.), each of them using the ext3 filesystem (except for the swap volume, of course).
0. Perform backups, boot from a live CD
Important: If you plan to perform any of these steps, make sure you have recent backups! I take no responsibility for any data loss you might experience. You have been warned!
First off, you should boot from a live CD which has all the tools you'll need, including cryptsetup, LVM tools, resize2fs, etc. You can use the nice grml live CD for instance.
1. Resize partition
This sounds scary (and it is!), but the way I enlarged the encrypted hda3 partition was by first deleting it via
fdisk. First, issue the "p" command in fdisk, write down the exact start cylinder of hda3. Then delete hda3. Now create a new hda3 partition which starts at exactly the same cylinder as the old hda3 but is larger, i.e. in my case it has ca. 80 GB additional space.
Your data will still be there if you don't screw up, and the partition is bigger now. Using something like gparted will likely not work as expected, as the partition is encrypted!
2. Resize dm-crypt volume
Nothing to be done, it seems dm-crypt automatically adapts and notices that the partition is bigger. Just "open" the encrypted volume using
$ cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/hda3 foo
3. Resize LVM physical volume
Next step is to tell LVM about the new space. We first resize the LVM physical volume on the
foo "partition" to use up all newly-available space.
$ pvresize /dev/mapper/foo
4. Resize LVM logical volume
Now we can pump the new space into any of the logical volumes (or into multiple ones). I only increased one logical volume, my /home:
$ lvresize -L +74 GB /dev/vg-whole/lv-home
5. Resize ext3 filesystem
The final step is to resize the ext3 filesystem on the
lv-home logical volume (after running the obligatory fsck -n). I first used ext2resize, but that failed horribly:
$ fsck -n /dev/vg-whole/lv-home $ ext2resize /dev/vg-whole/lv-home error: Invalid argument: seeking to 3258921205760
This seems to be a known bug, ext2resize apparently cannot handle large disks or something, and as I found out a few minutes later it's pretty much deprecated anyway. The better solution is to use resize2fs:
$ fsck -n /dev/vg-whole/lv-home $ resize2fs /dev/vg-whole/lv-home
That's it. We can now reboot the system from disk and enjoy ca. 80 GB of additional hard drive space. Yay!
If you want to generate a custom Debian live CD, including only the tools you want (and maybe additional tools you don't find in other live CDs) there's a really simple solution: live-helper.
Creating a basic bootable Debian live CD ISO image in the current directory is as simple as:
$ lh_config $ lh_build
That's it. The result will be a file called binary.iso, which you can either burn on a CD-ROM via
$ wodim binary.iso
or test in QEMU using a command line like this:
$ qemu -boot d -cdrom binary.iso
Of course there are many possibilities to customize the generated image to your likings, see the documentation in the Debian wiki, or the lh_config/lh_build manpages.
Please note that live-helper can not only generate CD ISOs, but also bootable DVDs, images for USB thumb drives, or netboot images.
There's also a nice GUI called live-magic which will make the process a bit easier if you don't like doing things on the command line.
So, if you've been thinking about applying as a student for one of the many, many accepted open source projects (Debian, Linux, NetBSD, subversion, vim, or coreboot — just to name a few) you still have a few days left...
Just in case you haven't already read about this... Some researchers from Princeton have published a paper about methods which can be used to attack full-disk-encryption (FDE) schemes.
They have demonstrated that at least BitLocker (Windows Vista), FileVault (MacOS X) and dm-crypt (Linux) are vulnerable to this type of (partly hardware-based) attack scenarios. Quite likely lots of similar other solutions are vulnerable as well.
The main problem is that (contrary to popular belief) RAM does indeed retain its data for a non-trivial amount of time after power is cut (seconds, even minutes or hours if it's cooled down enough), so you can mount some new attacks such as:
Yes, all attacks assume that the attacker has physical access to your PC/RAM, in which case you already have several other problems. Still, the new thing about this is that even full-disk-encryption doesn't help much in some cases. You probably shouldn't depend too much on it (but you shouldn't stop using disk encryption either, of course!).
Make sure to read the comments of the various articles for more scenarios and possible ideas for how to prevent such attacks. Some ideas include enabling the BIOS RAM checks (which might explicitly erase RAM contents on reboot; that doesn't help in all cases, though) or using coreboot (previously LinuxBIOS) to erase RAM contents at boot-up and/or shutdown.
It's a highly non-trivial issue, though, there's no easy and complete fix so far. The only sure way is to not have your laptop or PC stolen and to not give attackers physical access to your computers.
The old name has become quite a misnomer in recent years; the name LinuxBIOS created the impression that it's a drop-in BIOS-replacement and that it's using Linux or is Linux-specific in any way. Neither is the case.