I've bought a new hard drive for my laptop recently, because I finally got fed up with my constantly-full disk. Having to browse around in $HOME looking for stuff which can be safely deleted just because I want to run
fetchmail (and that would fill up my disk) just sucks. So, after getting a cheapo 160 GB 2.5" disk (the old one was 80 GB), I had to move all my data to the new disk.
As I didn't want to re-install from scratch I started with
dd'ing the whole disk over to the new one (using a live CD and an external USB hard-drive enclosure). This took pretty long, but went fine otherwise.
The new disk then contained all my partitions (hda1-hda3) and also GRUB in the MBR etc., as expected, but was still only 80 GB in size, of course. So the first step is to enlarge the hda3 partition, which is a dm-crypt volume that contains various LVM logical volumes (for /home, /usr, /var, swap, etc.), each of them using the ext3 filesystem (except for the swap volume, of course).
0. Perform backups, boot from a live CD
Important: If you plan to perform any of these steps, make sure you have recent backups! I take no responsibility for any data loss you might experience. You have been warned!
First off, you should boot from a live CD which has all the tools you'll need, including cryptsetup, LVM tools, resize2fs, etc. You can use the nice grml live CD for instance.
1. Resize partition
This sounds scary (and it is!), but the way I enlarged the encrypted hda3 partition was by first deleting it via
fdisk. First, issue the "p" command in fdisk, write down the exact start cylinder of hda3. Then delete hda3. Now create a new hda3 partition which starts at exactly the same cylinder as the old hda3 but is larger, i.e. in my case it has ca. 80 GB additional space.
Your data will still be there if you don't screw up, and the partition is bigger now. Using something like gparted will likely not work as expected, as the partition is encrypted!
2. Resize dm-crypt volume
Nothing to be done, it seems dm-crypt automatically adapts and notices that the partition is bigger. Just "open" the encrypted volume using
$ cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/hda3 foo
3. Resize LVM physical volume
Next step is to tell LVM about the new space. We first resize the LVM physical volume on the
foo "partition" to use up all newly-available space.
$ pvresize /dev/mapper/foo
4. Resize LVM logical volume
Now we can pump the new space into any of the logical volumes (or into multiple ones). I only increased one logical volume, my /home:
$ lvresize -L +74 GB /dev/vg-whole/lv-home
5. Resize ext3 filesystem
The final step is to resize the ext3 filesystem on the
lv-home logical volume (after running the obligatory fsck -n). I first used ext2resize, but that failed horribly:
$ fsck -n /dev/vg-whole/lv-home $ ext2resize /dev/vg-whole/lv-home error: Invalid argument: seeking to 3258921205760
This seems to be a known bug, ext2resize apparently cannot handle large disks or something, and as I found out a few minutes later it's pretty much deprecated anyway. The better solution is to use resize2fs:
$ fsck -n /dev/vg-whole/lv-home $ resize2fs /dev/vg-whole/lv-home
That's it. We can now reboot the system from disk and enjoy ca. 80 GB of additional hard drive space. Yay!