My GPG key transition to a 4096-bit key

This is long overdue, so here goes:

Hash: SHA1,SHA512

I'm transitioning my GPG key from an old 1024D key to a new 4096R key.

The old key will continue to be valid for some time, but I prefer
all new correspondance to be encrypted to the new key, and will be making
all signatures going forward with the new key.

This transition document is signed with both keys to validate the transition.

If you have signed my old key, I would appreciate signatures on my new
key as well, provided that your signing policy permits that without
re-authenticating me.

Old key:

pub   1024D/0x5DD5685778D621B4 2000-03-07
      Key fingerprint = 0F3C 34D1 E4A3 8FC6 435C  01BA 5DD5 6857 78D6 21B4

New key:

pub   4096R/0x1D661A372FED8F94 2013-12-30
      Key fingerprint = 9A17 578F 8646 055C E19D  E309 1D66 1A37 2FED 8F94

Version: GnuPG v1


The new key is available from keyservers, e.g. or others.

In other news: Yes, I've not been blogging much recently, will try to do updates more often. In the mean time, you can also refer to my Twitter account for random stuff or the new sigrok Twitter account for sigrok-related posts.

Creating 32768 bit RSA keys for fun and profit

Have you ever wondered how long it would take to create a 32768 bit RSA key with ssh-keygen? Well, I did.

   $ time ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 32768 -f ~/.ssh/tmp32768 -N foobar -q
   real    244m31.259s
   user    244m15.664s
   sys     0m4.736s

In other words, on my test system (AMD X2 CPU with 1.8 GHz per core) it took ca. 4 hours. This is likely very dependent on how much entropy you can get (and how fast), so take the numbers with a grain of salt. A second key with 32767 bits (one less) took 16 hours, for instance.

The resulting tmp32768 (private key) file is ca. 25 KB big, the (public key) file is 5 KB big.

There's likely no noticeable performance hit for ssh or scp AFAICS, as all data transfers are done with a symmetrical session key, not the RSA key itself. Only the initial connection "handshake" will take ca. 40 seconds longer...

And yes, 32768 is the maximum RSA key size you can currently create with OpenSSH, go file a bug report if that's not enough for you ;-) However, as I then noticed, this key will not actually work. When you put it in some authorized_keys file and try to login, the handshake will fail and the server-side will see the following error in /var/log/auth.log:

  sshd[xxxxxx]: error: RSA_public_decrypt failed: error:04067069:lib(4):func(103):reason(105)

I first thought I found an off-by-one error, but the 32767 bit key (one bit less) didn't work either. After looking through the OpenSSH and OpenSSL code as well as the RSA_private_decrypt(3SSL) manpage a bit, I saw that OpenSSH uses the RSA_PKCS1_PADDING parameter. My current theory is thus that some padding is making the key not work. I'm now creating a key with 11 bits less bits than 32768, let's see what happens. For the record, a key with 16384 bits does work just fine.

Anyway, I'll probably report this as "bug" (more a theoretical than a practical problem, though) as ssh-keygen let's you generate RSA keys which will never work in practice...

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