Website ReconstructionSeptember 2, 2017
My website/blog/photoblog has been in a stale and broken state for quite a while now; I’ve finally found some time to fix everything up.
I’m rebuilding everyting from scratch (for various reasons) in Drupal 8, so for the time being various older pages and blog posts will not be available, but I’m continuously re-adding content until (more or less) everything is back up. Stay tuned!
Comments will be disabled in the future, please contact me via email for feedback/comments on blog posts or the like, I’ll be updating the posts to reflect any feedback. Thanks!
My Gpg Key Transition to a 4096 Bit KeyJanuary 9, 2015
This is long overdue, so here goes:
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA1,SHA512 I'm transitioning my GPG key from an old 1024D key to a new 4096R key. The old key will continue to be valid for some time, but I prefer all new correspondance to be encrypted to the new key, and will be making all signatures going forward with the new key. This transition document is signed with both keys to validate the transition. If you have signed my old key, I would appreciate signatures on my new key as well, provided that your signing policy permits that without re-authenticating me. Old key: pub 1024D/0x5DD5685778D621B4 2000-03-07 Key fingerprint = 0F3C 34D1 E4A3 8FC6 435C 01BA 5DD5 6857 78D6 21B4 New key: pub 4096R/0x1D661A372FED8F94 2013-12-30 Key fingerprint = 9A17 578F 8646 055C E19D E309 1D66 1A37 2FED 8F94 -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Version: GnuPG v1 iEYEARECAAYFAlSwEaIACgkQXdVoV3jWIbQW5QCgoFHVU/D4fKSbvmGv3nNy3MAW S2UAn075ztmxQ8Y9/22crbUug1sEjfh5iQIcBAEBCgAGBQJUsBGiAAoJEB1mGjcv 7Y+U9PgP/29jPvrNcdWsLI8YK9U6+JzS+TMXNyfp6CQXc8O/+zJwqvvxNpqY3rLM 5otRLIEJ2EVdiF8sCWTDGusS9NkMePzumR0AFAR0iltIkekO5O0HbHhK0sXJQv0s EipDpFRO9k4/CBpJEy6Pkkxwd3ndtmwrL1/oKeVmM4E62PJd9ofMpQb/gMUsrA8u F8xoOXY8Os82Rrd759PypSxNecjd6SYaVJTHgFbZ0QIMJkdKaufifzARdw+v5jwg 8Q11BhpYxvUSugZgiciKA6RjRK5bfRnT8VQPFd0zneilsIW13zz/jub9df/vtM5L vY/6jHvXczYXSG8EGpHJQCD3KtQJPWZ0Nz9rAm4emEPmR2qav6KGARatYAm0RBqZ Y81YUEuiWzGli6DH1m9SQe8bqM/J94vQAAX9VqUn2gz0Z0Ey25kVQE7NOGsbbGVS vD/E74FSk1At9/RGpstrfEjsDKPRman2xk/oZe+08sRB22CJl40N4tZV9AkCJNom HHGZKp+VEKaCEiLUIRjKTHt2HTThg39zmxl+OnoTSFYvloxrDJyi9SxZgCAmBhbD 7kLkaSDmdUj6CmoilGU+gd2zmQl2D+RHinYZBxOUf1vi1MDLWNcLIMgrz4mRXgzE YKkG0newf9UbyJw42sXe2ukNQBIqBcL/DmAhG7V+r0RD7MQnMEYy =09bN -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
The new key is available from keyservers, e.g. pgp.mit.edu or others.
In other news: Yes, I’ve not been blogging much recently, will try to do updates more often. In the mean time, you can also refer to my Twitter account for random stuff or the new sigrok Twitter account for sigrok-related posts.
Using mdadm to recover from a dead disk in a Linux RAID-1 arraySeptember 7, 2013
Yes, it’s that time of the year again. A disk in my desktop-replacement laptop with 2 disks and a RAID-1 has died. Time for recovery.
This laptop has been running 24⁄7 for the last 3 years or such, so it’s not too surprising that a disk dies. Surprisingly though, for the first time in a long series of dead disks,
smartctl -a does indeed show errors for this disk. Here’s a short snippet of those:
$ smartctl -a /dev/sda [...] Error 1341 occurred at disk power-on lifetime: 17614 hours (733 days + 22 hours) When the command that caused the error occurred, the device was active or idle. After command completion occurred, registers were: ER ST SC SN CL CH DH -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 40 41 02 1f c0 9c 40 Error: UNC at LBA = 0x009cc01f = 10272799 Commands leading to the command that caused the error were: CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC Powered_Up_Time Command/Feature_Name -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---------------- -------------------- 60 f8 08 20 c0 9c 40 00 41d+01:51:50.974 READ FPDMA QUEUED 60 08 00 18 c0 9c 40 00 41d+01:51:50.972 READ FPDMA QUEUED ef 10 02 00 00 00 a0 00 41d+01:51:50.972 SET FEATURES [Reserved for Serial ATA] ec 00 00 00 00 00 a0 00 41d+01:51:50.971 IDENTIFY DEVICE ef 03 45 00 00 00 a0 00 41d+01:51:50.971 SET FEATURES [Set transfer mode] SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1 Num Test_Description Status Remaining LifeTime(hours) LBA_of_first_error # 1 Short offline Completed: read failure 90% 20511 156170102 [...]
The status of the degraded RAID array looks like this:
$ cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [raid1] md1 : active raid1 sdb7 409845696 blocks [2/1] [_U] md0 : active raid1 sda6 sdb6 291776 blocks [2/2] [UU]
The [_U] means that one of two disks has failed, it should normally be [UU]. There are two RAID-1s actually, a small md0 (sda6 + sdb6) for /boot and the main md1 (sda7 + sdb7) which holds the OS and my data. Apparently (at first at least), only sda7 was faulty and got kicked out of the array:
$ dmesg | grep kick md: kicking non-fresh sda7 from array!
Anyway, so I ordered a replacement disk, removed the dead disk (I checked the serial number and brand before, so I don’t accidentally remove the wrong one), inserted the new disk and rebooted.
Note: In order for this to work you have to have (previously) installed the bootloader (usually GRUB) onto both disks, otherwise you won’t be able to boot from either of them (which you’ll want to do if one of them dies, of course). In my case, sda was now dead, so I put sdb into its place (physically, by using the other SATA connector/port) and the new replacement disk would become the new sdb.
After the reboot, the new disk needs to be partitioned like the other RAID disk. This can be done easily by copying the partition layout of the “good” disk (now sda after the reboot) onto the empty disk (sdb):
$ sfdisk -d /dev/sda | sfdisk /dev/sdb
Specifically, the RAID disks/partitions need to have the type/ID “fd” (“Linux raid autodetect”), check if that is the case. Then, you can add the new disk to the RAIDs:
$ mdadm /dev/md0 --add /dev/sdb6 $ mdadm /dev/md1 --add /dev/sdb7
After a few hours the RAID will be re-synced properly and all is good again. You can check the progress via:
$ watch -n 1 cat /proc/mdstat
You should probably not reboot during the resync (though I’m not 100% sure if that would be an issue in practice; please leave a comment if you know).
Also, don’t forget to install GRUB on the new disk so you can still boot when the next disk dies:
$ grub-mkdevicemap $ grub-install /dev/sdb
And it might be a good idea to use S.M.A.R.T. to check the new disk, just in case. I did a quick run for the new disk via:
$ smartctl -t short /dev/sdb # Wait a few minutes after this. $ smartctl -a /dev/sdb [...] SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1 Num Test_Description Status Remaining LifeTime(hours) LBA_of_first_error # 1 Short offline Completed without error 00% 22 - [...]
Looks good. So far.
libsigrokdecode 0.1.1 released, more protocol decoders supportedJanuary 30, 2013
Just a quick announce: We released libsigrokdecode 0.1.1 today, a new version of one of the shared libraries part of the open-source sigrok project (for signal acquisition/analysis of various test&measurement gear, like logic analyzers, scopes, multimeters, etc). I will update the Debian package soonish.
As you probably know, in addition to the infrastructure for protocol decoding, this library also ships with a bunch of protocol decoders written in Python. Currently we support 29 different ones (in various states of “completeness”, improvements are ongoing).
This release adds support for the following new protocol decoders:
- avr_isp: AVR In-System Programming
- can: Controller Area Network
- jtag: Joint Test Action Group (IEEE 1149.1)
- jtag_stm32: Joint Test Action Group / ST STM32
- lm75: National LM75
- lpc: Low-Pin-Count
- maxim_ds28ea00: Maxim DS28EA00 1-Wire digital thermometer
- onewire_link: 1-Wire serial communication bus (link layer)
- onewire_network: 1-Wire serial communication bus (network layer)
- sdcard_spi: Secure Digital card (SPI mode)
- tlc5620: Texas Instruments TLC5620 DAC
- uart_dump: UART dump
Please check the announce on the sigrok blog and/or the NEWS file for the full list of changes and improvements.
Happy hacking and decoding!